Coal bed methane (CBM)


Coal bed methane (CBM) is a fossil fuel that is very similar to natural gas. It is liberated from the herbaceous base substance during the coalification process and is stored in seams of coal. CBM is understood to be the gas present in an area of a coal deposit that has not yet been affected by mining operations. It often comprises more than 90 per cent methane. It is, however, seldom stored as a free gas in pores but instead is bound sorptively to the inner surfaces of the coal. Profitable recovery is thus possible only where certain specific conditions prevail in the deposit (e.g. sufficient permeabilities and adequate gas pressures). If these natural prerequisites are not available, then they will have to be established by way of technical measures such as drilling into or fracturing the seam.

Spectro geologists have extensive experience in the determination of coalbed methane quantity, quality, reservoir characteristics, and recovery technology.

Services provided include:

Field desorption study

Our laboratories are self-contained units meeting all international standards to work onsite. Each mobile lab is equipped with core description and sampling facilities, water baths for desorption at reservoir or fluid temperatures, and canister desorption racks capable of holding 150 canisters. We perform well site duties while on site and utilize Power Log for integrating core descriptions, cuttings descriptions and wire line logs or our proprietary software for desorption analyses and gas in place calculations.

Laboratory analysis

lab-setupSpectro Solutions offers a wide variety of services in support of CBM and gas shale exploration and development. We have a state of the art Gas Chromatograph for analyzing composition of CBM samples drawn during desorption process or from the CBM wells. We also design and carry out analytical protocol to suit project goals.

Residual gas determinations

We have an imported ring mill to crush and contain residual gas in the steel container from where the residual gas is accurately measured and accounted for the desorption studies.

Analysis of deabsorbed gas for C1-C7, CO2, CO, N2,O3

Desorbed gas composition identifies the fractionation of gas over the life of the desorption history to determine a total in situ gas composition and the need for multiple gas isotherm data We also have the facility to test desorbed gas composition of coal samples as a function of cumulative desorption volume. Stainless steel gas sample cylinders are used to sample gas during desorption.

Insitu Permeability

Permeability determines through well testing the key property controlling gas producibility of CBM reservoirs. Cores of sandstone display different kinds of texture/structure, so these sample are tested to determine porosity and permeability under ambient and/ or overburden condition.

Adsorption Isotherm generation

Adsorption Isotherm accurately determines the volume of gas that can be stored through sorption at reservoir temperature and pressure conditions Our Services include high-pressure isotherms for all gases, Langmuir modeling, extended Longmuir modeling, coal / hydrocarbon petrology, reflectance and proximate and typical coal analyses. For gas shale analyses we utilize TOC, maturity and porosity analyses. The lab is capable of carrying out isotherm studies and submitting reports as per the best industry standards.

Residual Gas measurement

We have an imported ring mill to crush and contain residual gas in the steel container from where the residual gas is accurately measured and accounted for the desorption studies.

 Drill hole site selection and supervision,
 On-site sampling
 Coal seam mapping,
 Reserve evaluation.
 Coal Geological Services (Core point picks, structure, mudlogging ec.)
 Estimation of total gas
 Chromatograph to analyze desorbed gases
 Capable of analyzing methane and other gases; CO2, N2, O2. etc.
 Bulk density
 Ultimate & Proximate Analysis
 Vitrinite reflectance
 X-Ray imaging and x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning
 Fracture analysis

 Coal Petrography Laboratory